During design, development, and performance evaluation of an aerospace vehicle, vehicle drag is estimated to : determine flight characteristics, such as range, endurance, maneuverability. Propulsion system sizing. Effect of payload/carriage of aircraft performance. The design life-cycle majorly consists of three phases,(i) conceptual, (ii) preliminary, and (iii)critical design phases.
Bird Flight – Extreme Aerodynamics
Downwash & Induced Drag The flow pattern at the tip of the finite wing generates a vortical flow field. The trailing vortices create a ‘downwash’ at the wing that rotates the freestream velocity downwards vectorially. These vortices make the resultant lift force vector rotate backward, which gives rise to a force that is in the…